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The Ottoman Empire entered World War I on the side of the Central Powers and was ultimately defeated. Although not very traditional, grilling turkey is the best way of cooking it -- it comes out tender and juicy every time! Turkey's beaches are world famous, offering a reliable summer mix of sun, sand and azure waters.Topping the list are Mediterranean and Aegean beauties such as Kaputaş, a tiny cove with … [456] Except for the Open Education Faculties (AÖF) at Anadolu, Istanbul and Atatürk University; entrance is regulated by the national Student Selection and Placement System (ÖSYS) examination, after which high school graduates are assigned to universities according to their performance. [73] The Ottoman wars with Persia continued as the Zand, Afsharid, and Qajar dynasties succeeded the Safavids in Iran, until the first half of the 19th century. The Mevlevi Order of dervishes, which was established in Konya during the 13th century by Sufi poet Celaleddin Rumi, played a significant role in the Islamization of the diverse people of Anatolia who had previously been Hellenized. [89][90][91] Following the Armistice of Mudros on 30 October 1918, the victorious Allied Powers sought to partition the Ottoman state through the 1920 Treaty of Sèvres. A fairly standard 12- to 15-pound turkey will feed between six and eight people as part of a meal, so scale up or down as needed. in, "The Mausoleum of Halicarnassus: A Wonder of the Ancient World", "The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus: The Un-Greek Temple and Wonder", "Anatolia and the Caucasus (Asia Minor), 1000 B.C. A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences and General Literature, Volume 23", "Ottoman/Turkish Visions of the Nation, 1860–1950", "An Ottoman warning for indebted America", "Collapse of the Ottoman Empire, 1918–1920", "Why Turkey hasn't forgotten about the First World War", "ECHR: Why Turkey won't talk about the Armenian genocide", "Creating a Modern 'Zone of Genocide': The Impact of Nation- and State-Formation on Eastern Anatolia, 1878–1923", "Turkey holds first election that allows women to vote", "Growth in United Nations membership (1945–2005)", "Turkish Military Leaders Held for Role in '97 Coup", "U.S. Department of State - Bureau of Counterterrorism: Foreign Terrorist Organizations", "Council of the European Union: Council Decision (CFSP) 2019/1341 of 8 August 2019 updating the list of persons, groups and entities subject to Articles 2, 3 and 4 of Common Position 2001/931/CFSP on the application of specific measures to combat terrorism", Timeline: Kurdish militant group PKK's three-decade war with Turkey, "Turkish forces kill 32 Kurdish militants in bloody weekend as conflict escalates", "Interview with European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso on BBC Sunday AM", "What's driving unrest and protests in Turkey? The late 1990s also saw an emergence of underground music producing alternative Turkish rock, electronica, hip-hop, rap and dance music in opposition to the mainstream corporate pop and arabesque genres, which many believe have become too commercial. Average life expectancy is 78.6 years (75.9 for males and 81.3 for females), compared with the EU average of 81 years. A sunny escape, a wonder of ancient ruins, and a dynamic country stirring with life—Turkey is a multilayered delight Blessed by a Mediterranean climate and a rich history influence by the Ottoman … The CIA World Factbook reports that Islam is the religion of 99.8% of the population, with Sunni Muslims as the largest sect, while 0.2% are Christians and Jews. [515] Edirne Province has hosted the annual Kırkpınar oil wrestling tournament since 1361, making it the oldest continuously held sporting competition in the world. May is generally the wettest month, whereas July and August are the driest.[282]. During the years of chaos and war, the Darülbedayi-i Osmani continued its activities and attracted the younger generation. [226][227] Many judgments are related to cases such as civilian deaths in aerial bombardments,[238] torturing,[239] forced displacements,[240] destroyed villages,[241][242][243] arbitrary arrests,[244] murdered and disappeared Kurdish journalists, activists and politicians. The house where Virgin Mary lived the final days of her life until her Assumption (according to Catholic doctrine) or Dormition (according to Orthodox belief),[426][427] and the tomb of John the Apostle, who accompanied her during the voyage to Anatolia after the crucifixion of Jesus, are in Ephesus. Yogurt salads, fish in olive oil, sherbet and stuffed and wrapped vegetables became Turkish staples. The instructions for several ebru techniques in the text are accredited to this master. Following Alexander's death in 323 BC, Anatolia was subsequently divided into a number of small Hellenistic kingdoms, all of which became part of the Roman Republic by the mid-1st century BC. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Turkey is bounded on the north by the Black Sea, on the northeast by Georgia and Armenia, on the east by Azerbaijan and Iran, on the southeast by Iraq and Syria, on the southwest and west by the Mediterranean Sea and the Aegean Sea, and on the northwest by Greece and Bulgaria. The country is encircled by seas on three sides: the Aegean Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean to the south. [285][286] The country is among the founding members of the OECD and the G20. The slow transition from a predominantly Christian and Greek-speaking Anatolia to a predominantly Muslim and Turkish-speaking one was underway. İsmet İnönü became Turkey's second President following Atatürk's death on 10 November 1938. So for a full year they met together with the church and taught large numbers of people. [463] Turkey has one of the highest rates of obesity in the world, with nearly one third (29.5%) of its adult population obese. [503] The Turkish national football team has won the bronze medal at the 2002 FIFA World Cup, the 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup and UEFA Euro 2008.[504]. The loss of Rumelia (Ottoman territories in Europe) with the First Balkan War (1912–1913) was followed by the arrival of millions of Muslim refugees (muhacir) to Istanbul and Anatolia. The maritime boundary with Greece has been a source of dispute between the two countries on numerous occasions since World War II. During the war, the empire's Armenians were deported to Syria as part of the Armenian Genocide. [131][132][133] Steps towards decentralisation[when?] [521] The Radio and Television Supreme Council (RTÜK) is the government body overseeing the broadcast media. Within this unitary framework, Turkey is subdivided into 81 provinces (il or vilayet) for administrative purposes. [18] The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities called beyliks. Omissions? [502] Galatasaray won the UEFA Cup and UEFA Super Cup in 2000. "[417] Now greatly increased in size, the Diyanet promotes a certain type of conservative (Hanafi Sunni) Islam inside Turkey, issuing fetva that disapprove of activities such as "feeding dogs at home, celebrating the western New Year, lotteries, and tattoos"[418] The Antalya Plain extends inland some 20 miles (30 km) from the Gulf of Antalya; the Adana Plain, measuring roughly 90 by 60 miles (145 by 100 km), comprises the combined deltas of the Seyhan and Ceyhan rivers. However, negotiations for solving the Cyprus dispute are still ongoing between Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot political leaders.[108]. [297] The rate of female employment in Turkey was 30 percent in 2012,[298] the lowest among all OECD countries. They followed closely the context of the book they were included in, more illustrations than standalone works of art. [340] The Blue Stream, a major trans-Black Sea gas pipeline, delivers natural gas from Russia to Turkey. In the southeast the Uludoruk Peak reaches 15,563 feet (4,744 metres); though further west, the Demirkazık Peak (12,320 feet [3,755 metres]) and Mount Aydos (11,414 feet [3,479 metres]) are also significant peaks. Since the fall of the empire in World War I (1914–1918) and the establishment of the Turkish Republic in 1923, foreign food such as French hollandaise sauce and Western fast food have made their way into the modern Turkish diet. Following the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, some Kurdish and Zaza tribes, which were feudal (manorial) communities led by chieftains (agha) during the Ottoman period, became discontent about certain aspects of Atatürk's reforms aiming to modernise the country, such as secularism (the Sheikh Said rebellion, 1925)[100] and land reform (the Dersim rebellion, 1937–1938),[101] and staged armed revolts that were put down with military operations. Turkey jails hundreds for life over 2016 failed coup attempt In one of the biggest cases related to the plot to overthrow the government, 337 ex-pilots and others sentenced to life. [383] As of April 2020, there are 3.6 million Syrian refugees in Turkey, who are mostly Arabs but also include Syrian Kurds, Syrian Turkmen, and other ethnic groups of Syria. It consists of the construction of a spaceport, the development of satellite launch vehicles as well as the establishment of remote earth stations. Over the past decades access to drinking water has become almost universal and access to adequate sanitation has also increased substantially. [465][466] Turkish culture is a product of efforts to be a "modern" Western state, while maintaining traditional religious and historical values. [521][522] By circulation, the most popular newspapers are Posta, Hürriyet, Sözcü, Sabah and Habertürk. Yüzyıl Başı Eminönü'nde Osmanlı Büro Hanları", "Ankara – State Museum of Painting and Sculpture", "Mass Housing Development by a Government Agency and the Politics of Urbanization", "Food in Turkey – Turkish Food, Turkish Cuisine", "Historic achievements of the Efes Pilsen Basketball Team", "Galatasaray Lift EuroLeague Women Title", "Turkish volleyball teams' successes in Europe", "Vakıfbank women claim volleyball Champions League trophy", "Historical Kırkpınar oil wrestling festival kicks off in northwestern Turkey", "Kırkpınar Oiled Wrestling Tournament: History", "The Political Economy of the Media in Turkey: A Sectoral Analysis", "Gazete Tirajları 02.05.2016 – 08.05.2016", "Turkey world"s second highest TV series exporter after US – Business", "CPJ testifies on Turkey's press freedom record after failed coup attempt", "Turkey Purges 4,000 More Officials, and Blocks Wikipedia", "Turkey blocks Wikipedia under law designed to protect national security", Turkey Home – Turkey's Official Tourism Portal, Official website of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Official website of the Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, Official website of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Official website of Ministry of the Ministry of Economy, Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe, autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, Commission against Racism and Intolerance, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), International Organization of Turkic Culture, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Turkey&oldid=991907478, Member states of the Union for the Mediterranean, States and territories established in 1923, Turkish-speaking countries and territories, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Articles containing Turkish-language text, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March 2020, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from March 2020, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2016, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles that are excessively detailed from November 2020, All articles that are excessively detailed, Wikipedia articles with style issues from November 2020, All articles that may contain original research, Articles that may contain original research from June 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2018, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from November 2020, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from September 2020, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Officially the Republic of China, participates as ", This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 13:09. Despite this, marbled motifs are commonly referred to as hatip designs in Turkey today. The Scientific And Technological Research Council of Turkey", "Turkish Atomic Energy Authority – Mission of TAEK", "Turkey's Sat-Launcher Plans Raise Concerns", "Turkish professor, Aziz Sancar, part of the team that wins Nobel Chemistry Prize", "Mid-year population estimations, 1927–1985; Mid-year population estimations and projections, 1986–2011", "The Results of Address Based Population Registration System, 2011", "Turkey's ethnic make-up: A complex melting pot", Turkey passes law to allow minority languages on TV, "Yaşayan diller ve lehçeler dersini 85 bin öğrenci seçti", "Syria Regional Refugee Response: Turkey", "Turkey faces interlinked quagmires in Idlib and Libya", "Exclusive: 2,000 Syrian fighters deployed to Libya to support government", "December 2013 address-based calculation of the Turkish Statistical Institute as presented by citypopulation.de", "Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 2013 Revision", "Total Persons of Concern by Country of Asylum", "Türkiye'nin yüzde 85'i 'anadilim Türkçe' diyor", "Interactive Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger", "Türkiye artık yüzde 99'u müslüman olan ülke değil", "Optimar'dan din-inanç anketi: Yüzde 89 Allah'ın varlığına ve birliğine inanıyor", https://minorityrights.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/MRG_Rep_Turk2007_TURK.pdf, "International Constitutional Law: Turkey Constitution", "Turkey: Islam and Laicism Between the Interests of State, Politics, and Society", "Middle East :: Turkey — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency", "Turkey Lifts Longtime Ban on Head Scarves in State Offices", "Turkey-lifts-ban-on-headscarves-at-high-schools", "Turkey reverses female army officers' headscarf ban", "Turkish students up in arms over Islamization of education", "Erdogan pens education plan for Turkey's 'devout generation, "Turkey's 'devout generation' project means lost jobs, schools for many", "Turkey is becoming more secular, not less", "Turkish youth increasingly secular and modern under Erdogan, poll finds", "Bureau of Democracy, Human rights and Labor: International Religious Freedom Report 2007 – Turkey", "The Rise of Diyanet: the Politicization of Turkey's Directorate of Religious Affairs", "Is Erdogan signaling end of secularism in Turkey? ", "Cyprus: EU 'appeasement' of Turkey in exploration row will go nowhere", "Turkey threatens Greece over disputed Mediterranean territorial claims", "Turkish Armed Forces Defense Organization", "Deniz Kuvvetlerinden TCG Trakya açıklaması", United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Directorate for Movements of Persons, Migration and Consular Affairs – Asylum and Migration Division, "EBCO: European Bureau for Conscientious Objection", "Financial and Economic Data Relating to NATO Defence", "Contribution of Turkish Armed Forces to Peace Support Operations", "Turkey finalizes military training base in Somalia", "Turkey trains Kurdish peshmerga forces in fight against Islamic State", "Seeing shared threats, Turkey sets up military base in Qatar", "Turkey to open its largest military base in Somalia", "The World's Most And Least Peaceful Countries in 2016", "European Court of Human Rights: Turkey Ranks First in Violations in between 1959–2011", "Human rights in Turkey: still a long way to go to meet accession criteria", "Lice'nin Fis köyünde PKK'nın kuruluşunu kutladılar", "Turkish lecturer to be put on trial for posing exam question on PKK leader", "The European Court of Human Rights: Case of Benzer and others v. Turkey", "Police arrest and assistance of a lawyer", "Justice Comes from European Court for a Kurdish Journalist", Turkish parliament moves to strip lawmakers' immunity from prosecution, "Turkey orders 70 army officers detained over Gulen links – CNN Turk", "Turkey arrests German for spreading Kurdish propaganda: Anadolu", Erdogan Renews Putsch Purge With Targets in Media, Academia, From soldiers to midwives, Turkey dismisses 15,000 more after coup bid, Turkish court orders release of journalists during their trial, "Turkey's crackdown propels number of journalists in jail worldwide to record high", "Russia, China and Turkey top yearly list of music freedom violations", "Rights violations, terror ops threaten Turkey's democratic institutions: PACE", "Turkey faces scrutiny over alleged use of chemical weapons on children in Syria", "Turkey accused of war crimes after suspected white phosphorus use against civilian Kurds in Syria", "Chemical weapons watchdog: Turkey did not use white phosphorus in Syria", "Damning evidence of war crimes by Turkish forces and allies in Syria", Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, Status, conservation and management of large carnivores in Turkey, "Diyarbakır'da öldürülen leopar İran Parsı çıktı", "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019", "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2020", "Turkey's evolving trade integration into Pan-European markets", "About Best-Selling Home Appliance Brand Beko UK", "Panoramic view of the modern skyline of Istanbul's European side, with the skyscrapers of Levent at the center and the Bosphorus Bridge (1973) at right", "View of the skyscrapers in Levent from Sporcular Park", "Istanbul remains motoring power of Turkey's economy", "Turkey: Agriculture and Rural Development", "Religious Women in Turkey Have Been Left Out of Emancipation Movement", "M&A Encumbered Risks Damping Hot Money Bond Party: Turkey Credit", "How to ruin a country's economy: AKP's 15 year long order of plunder and depredation in Turkey", "Turkey's external debt stock reaches $453.2B", "Turkey's current account deficit at $5.4 billion in April", "WIND VS COAL POWER IN TURKEY/SOLAR PV VS COAL IN TURKEY", "Coronavirus poses threat to climate action, says watchdog", "Energy pricing and non-market flows in Turkey's energy sector", "Big nations aid fossil fuels more than clean energies amid pandemic, researchers find", "Turkey Bets on EVs with the Pininfarina-Designed TOGG", "Growth and economic crises in Turkey: leaving behind a turbulent past? Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [95] The Lausanne Convention stipulated a population exchange between Greece and Turkey, whereby 1.1 million Greeks left Turkey for Greece in exchange for 380,000 Muslims transferred from Greece to Turkey. [282] Snow may remain at least 120 days of the year. [350] TÜBA is an autonomous scholarly society acting to promote scientific activities in Turkey. Today there are more than 120,000-320,000 people of various Christian denominations,[435] representing less than 0.2% of Turkey's population,[436] including an estimated 80,000 Oriental Orthodox, 35,000 Roman Catholics,[437] 18,000 Antiochian Greeks,[438] 5,000 Greek Orthodox and smaller numbers of Protestants. [432] The drop was the result of events that had a significant impact on the country's demographic structure, such as the Armenian Genocide, the population exchange between Greece and Turkey[433] and the emigration of Christians that began in the late 19th century and gained pace in the first quarter of the 20th century. The Asian part of the country mostly consists of the peninsula of Anatolia, which consists of a high central plateau with narrow coastal plains, between the Köroğlu and Pontic mountain ranges to the north and the Taurus Mountains to the south. Follow the directions on the box for how to properly use a roasting bag. [63], In the latter half of the 11th century, the Seljuk Turks began penetrating into medieval Armenia and the eastern regions of Anatolia. For the bird, see, "Türkiye" redirects here. We will talk you through brining, stuffing, trussing and roasting, along with extra turkey … The European section of Turkey, also known as East Thrace (Turkish: Trakya) is located at the easternmost edge the Balkan peninsula. Each category includes first instance courts and high courts. In line with this principle, judicial power is exercised by independent courts on behalf of the Turkish nation. [393], Religion in Turkey (2019)[394][395][396][397], Turkey is a secular state with no official state religion; the Turkish Constitution provides for freedom of religion and conscience. [334][335] As well as Turkish Airlines, flag carrier of Turkey since 1933, several other airlines operate in the country. [216][217] Turkey maintains a force of 36,000 troops in Northern Cyprus since 1974. The studios the artists worked in were called nakkaşhane. Males of both turkey species have a distinctive fleshy wattle or protuberance that hangs from the top of the beak (called a snood). The Anatolian leopard is still found in very small numbers in the northeastern and southeastern regions of Turkey. Subsequently, Turkey benefited from the United States' political, economic and diplomatic support, including in key issues such as the country's bid to join the European Union. [392] 11.97 percent of the population speaks the Kurmanji dialect of Kurdish as their mother tongue. However, agriculture still accounted for a quarter of employment. The roots of traditional music in Turkey span across centuries to a time when the Seljuk Turks migrated to Anatolia and Persia in the 11th century and contains elements of both Turkic and pre-Turkic influences. [270] Anatolia is the homeland of many plants that have been cultivated for food since the advent of agriculture, and the wild ancestors of many plants that now provide staples for humankind still grow in Turkey. [302] Turkey's annual current account deficit was $47.3 billion at the end of December 2017, compared to the previous year's figure of $33.1 billion. [161], Law enforcement in Turkey is carried out by several departments (such as the General Directorate of Security and Gendarmerie General Command) and agencies, all acting under the command of the President of Turkey or mostly the Minister of Internal Affairs. "[163], Turkey is a founding member of the United Nations (1945),[167] the OECD (1961),[168] the OIC (1969),[169] the OSCE (1973),[170] the ECO (1985),[171] the BSEC (1992),[172] the D-8 (1997)[173] and the G20 (1999). [348], Water supply and sanitation in Turkey is characterised by achievements and challenges. It became popular again by the beginning of the 1990s, as a result of an opening economy and society. The most powerful of Phrygia's successor states were Lydia, Caria and Lycia. The breast should reach 165 degrees …

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